What Happens Inside a 3-D Photography Studio?

The record on which the light waves are “stored” is known as the “hologram.” It is essentially similar to the film for an ordinary camera but is of better quality and generally in the form of a photographic plate made of glass.

Some figure shows how the recording is done. An expanded beam of light from a laser is first divided into two parts by a special mirror. One part (called the “reference beam”) travels directly to the photographic plate, while the other part illuminates the object to be holographed. The complex pattern of light reflected from the object then also travels to the photographic plate. Light is thus arriving on the plate from two directions, producing a very detailed recording of the pattern on the plate.


Other figure shows how the playback process is done to give the 3-D image. The plate is first developed (as in ordinary photography) and the object removed. A single beam of light is now directed onto the plate. The light passes through the plate, but in so doing it is modified by the pattern embedded in the plate. The result is that the emerging light exactly duplicates the original light that came from the object, and so the object seems to reappear. To the viewer, the photographic plate is like a window through which the object is seen in full depth. By looking through the “window” in different directions, the object is seen from different angles. The image manifests such vivid realism that the viewer may be tempted to reach out and touch it, but, of course, nothing is there!

Interesting Properties

Holograms and the images they produce have many curious and fascinating properties. The hologram plate is equivalent, in holography, to the negatives obtained from an ordinary film. However, it is quite different in certain respects. For example, if you have some black-and-white negatives available, hold them up to the light and you will notice that they contain the picture (actually, in reversed form-the dark areas are light and the light areas dark). Hold the hologram plate up to the light and you will find that it bears absolutely no resemblance to any picture. Only under a microscope can the pertinent information be seen, but, even then, just as a highly irregular, unintelligible pattern of lines, blobs and whorls.

If part of an ordinary negative is damaged or cut away, then, obviously, that portion of the picture will be ruined or missing in prints made from the negative. Smash the glass hologram plate, however, and you will be surprised. The whole image can be reconstructed from any of the pieces! The quality will be impaired somewhat, depending on the size of the piece. Nevertheless, the image will always be complete!

The 3-D realism of the image produced from holograms is evident in several ways. If you change your viewing position through the “window” (the glass hologram plate), the perspective of the picture changes just as it would if you were looking at the original scene. If something in the foreground of the picture obstructs an object behind it, then by moving your head to the side you can look past it to see the hidden object. You will also find that the focus of your eyes will change when you look at near and far points in the scene and if you are nearsighted then your spectacles will help!

An interesting effect occurs if, say, a diamond ring is holographed. In the holographic image the diamond reflects glints of light from its facets and these appear and disappear as the viewer moves his head-exactly like the real diamond!

In short, the reconstruction has all the visual properties of the real thing.

History of the Italian Language

Local Dialects and Translation Issues

Italian is considered one of the Romance languages because it is originally derived from Latin. Its development was sporadic due to the individuality of the Italian states throughout their long history. Each region created its own dialect, some of which did not bear much resemblance to the standard Italian language. In modern times, the dialects are still spoken, but the overall written Italian language has been standardized. Many Italian residents are bilingual, speaking an alternative language along with several dialects of their own language.

The local dialects

There are several different dialects of the Italian language, each influenced by the local region where it developed. Italian originally derived from Latin spoken by the Romans. The most common Italian dialect is the Tuscan version that developed in Florence. The central location of Florence has helped this dialect remain the closest to the standard written Italian language. Other dialects are have far greater differences than standard Italian. The differences between each dialect of the Italian language can be quite significant as well.

Attempts to standardize

At different times throughout history, there have been proposals of a standardized Italian language, but none of them have ever come to fruition. The first proposal was suggested back in 1525, but by 1861 the discussion had faded. At that time, it was determined that only a few percent of Italians were still speaking their native language, with most speaking the local dialect or another language altogether.

Problems with translation

This multitude of dialects has caused problems in the translation of ancient documents. The earliest Italian writings go back to the 10th century, when the dialects were only spoken in their local region. Some historical Italian artists played a large part in translating and standardizing the language through their art. Petrarca Francesco, one of the early Italian translators and a well-known humanist and poet, worked with Boccacio to write some of the first standardized Italian works. Another important writer in the development of the Italian language was Dante Alighieri. His crowning achievement, “Divine Comedy” is considered a classic of Italian literature and was later studied in depth by Boccacio.

Modern-day Italy

The advent of television and public education served to standardize the language where formal proposals had failed. Today, most of the Italian population speaks the standard language, with the dialects being used more in certain local areas. Over half of the country is bilingual, speaking another language such as French, English, or German in addition to their native Italian.

Korean Language Honorifics

Koreans have a rich culture as well as other countries in the world from their festivals, foods, technology and much more. Among the most prominent Korean culture is their language honorific or polite system. You include specific elements in the language depending on who you speak to or what setting you are in.

If you plan to learn the Korean language or are currently learning the language, you’ll find that applying honorifics is one of the more difficult things or probably a complicated aspect to learn. However, it is imperative that you learn to implement honorifics in your speech because if not, you will be deemed really rude by Koreans.

Let’s start off with the most common instance when you should use honorific language. First, Koreans value age. The older you are the more you are respected because of your seniority. So the first thing you have to keep in mind is when speaking to a much older person, apply honorifics in your speech.


Korean speech is in the Subject/Object/Verb format as opposed to Subject/Verb/Object for English. To use honorific speech, you must add a “yo” or “seyo” at the end of your sentences. “seyo” which is the combination of “shi” + “oyo” is much more respectful. You usually use these when speaking in an informal setting such as when you meet older acquaintances that you’re not too close with or with a senior like a teacher or a mentor. The same goes when you meet a friend of a friend.

As for formal conversations such as business meetings, public speaking, talk to a person with high social status, or for total strangers, you can use the formal honorific “seumnida” or “~mnida”. You use the former for verbs or adjectives ending in consonants and the latter for those that end in vowels.

Just remember that the casual type of speech is only used within the family, by really close friends, couples, people with same age group and social status, or if the two persons agree to drop honorifics in their conversation. Other than these situations, I strongly suggest that you use honorifics when speaking Korean.


There are some other aspects of the Korean language where you can incorporate honorifics. There are some words that have an alternate word for being respectful such as the verb “chu da” meaning to “give”. Its more respectful version is “deu ri da”. Also, if the person you are talking to has a title or a special relation to you, you call them by that title such as “songsaengnim” which means teacher or if you’re a boy, “noona” for an older sister or practically any woman older than you.

As for the casual style of speech, learn it only if you’ve mastered basic Korean or if you’re at least an advanced speaker. The casual style usually drops the articles and sentence endings so it will be terribly confusing if you have a small vocabulary or if you’re not familiar with how sentences are formed in Korean.

Now, always remember to consider who you are speaking to. Apply honorifics when necessary or probably in almost every occasion. If you’re learning the language, I really suggest you keep honorifics. If you speak with honorifics with a native Korean, do not worry, they will most surely speak with you in a polite and/or formal way as well.

Language and the Cerebellum

Is Your Inability to Learn a New Language Your Fault or Are You Cerebellumly Challenged?

Years ago baby experts told everyone it’s good to teach your child a second language, and start early too. Most of that is true but now researchers know that when a child has a firm grasp on a base language first and then learns a second language, the child’s vocabulary in both languages are better.

Have you ever been impressed while listening to someone else speak a foreign language? I have and I often thought, “I wish I could do that.” A few years later, some college classes and trips, well I picked up Spanish. My parents also spoke learned languages aside from English, my mother learned French and my father was a military man, he spent a lot of time in Turkey so he picked up the language. Have you ever heard someone say, “there’s no way I can learn a foreign language?” It might be true!

Different parts of the brain control different parts of what we all do. From seeing a butterfly zip through your back yard noticing it’s vibrant colors, to smelling all the flowers around you and feeling the warm sunshine on your body, your brain of course makes all of that possible as it does with your ability to learn a new language. Researchers have studied the area’s that control our language on folks who speak one language compared to those who speak a dozen or more, apparently some people can learn and some can’t.

Had I have known interesting things like that in grade school, I could’ve gotten away with a lot more just “acting” stupid because I could have blamed it on my brain!

All jokes aside, it is really interesting, we’ve always known that our brain is in control but sometimes it’s really hard to associate or give our brain credit for in all, controlling us. In one of my language classes there was one guy, who despite his whole hearted attempts just could not learn the language. He probably tried harder than anyone else! He ended up joining the services and now he’s an airplane mechanic……… no one said he was stupid, he just couldn’t learn Spanish but I’m sure I can’t learn how to work on an airplane because I’m just not good at mechanical workings. I can speak some jam up Spanish though!

There are two reasons why I’m not bad at learning Spanish. One is that I dose up on a drug called Optimind – it’s a bit pricey but it promotes concentration, focus, and memory – sound like it might help you learn a language? Damn spiffy! Reason number dos is that I have a Mexican girlfriend. I’m not sure she’s teaching me the most useful words though…

It just amazes me how our brain controls our language, I don’t want to get too technical but the cerebellum is one massive control switch, which most thought before wasn’t as astounding as other parts of the brain. Technically speaking the cerebellum is a part of the hindbrain, which is basically an extension of the spinal cord. It is said to control finely coordinated movements and store information from learned associations involving any type of movement.

A good example would be your ability to close your eyes and touch the tip of your nose with the tip of your pointer finger. If anyone asks you to do that, it could be part of a field sobriety test! Alcohol really jiggles up the cerebellum and fogs your ability to some of the most common of movements. However recent work on studying the functions of the brain have come up with some new ways to think about what the various parts of the brain can do. One perspective, coordinated movements could be thought of as simple motor functioning but what about sequencing and timing?

When speaking we sequence a series of words, we even time them when singing or even while reading. Our mind shows us commas, periods, exclamation marks, questions marks and our brain takes in that information, in turn what comes out of our mouth is a product of how well our parts of the brain including the cerebellum react. If something is broken, so to speak, with our sequencing of words then stuttering could be an end result. There’s no doubting that some people have a larger area in the brain for languages than others but this can be looked at in several ways and not just in comparison to learning languages. A friend of mine is a poet, she can come up with a verse in a flat minute, while I … I just can’t do it!

Maybe one day researchers will find some kind of a natural who knows what, that most of us lack or have a smaller supply that could better explain why some people’s brains just do more than others. Then it would be cool if they could mass manufacture it so the rest of us who want to learn languages or write a poetic verse. The mysteries of the brain, the cerebellum or of the great deep blue sea may never be discovered in our lifetimes, but in the mean time it’s fun to explore!

Fogless Shower Mirrors

What Is a Fogless Mirror?

One thing we find vital for taking care of ourselves while we’re in the shower is a fogless shower mirror. Hubby shaves his beard, number 1 son shaves his head, and we ladies do our legs. One or more of us is shaving in the shower on a daily basis.

The glass on the mirror is cold, and we love our warm showers, so the result is condensation and hundreds of wasted pounds as we stay in the shower wiping the mirror clean. The solution was simple – a shower mirror that doesn’t fog up!

They’re super cheap and you don’t need a plumber to install them. Some come with special glass, some have unique tricks to keep them viewable in the warm, damp shower air.

You might still need a cloth to wipe it down, but that’s more to do with the moisture than the condensation.

Fog Free Shower Mirror Benefits

There are 4 main advantages to these nifty devices:

  • They’re easy to set up. Most have powerful suction cups that simply attach to your bathroom tiles. It’s a matter of moments to get it in place.
  • They really are fogless. I mean, that’s the whole point, isn’t it!
  • Cheap. Even the most expensive one is about the price of a few coffees.
  • Long-lasting. As there’s nothing to corrode or degrade, these will last years.

Choosing the Best Fogless Shower Mirror

There are some factors you should consider before buying a fogless shower mirror:

  • Price. Some fogless shower mirrors are dirt cheap… and useless. You might want to pay a bit more to get more features and better quality. Beware crappy plastic rubbish and spend an extra fiver for something that’s better value for money long term.
  • Installation. Read the reviews to see how well the suction cups work in the real world. Not all suction cups are created equal! If you want something more… permanent… there are special adhesives that can fix things in place for years.
  • Size. These mirrors are often quite small – just big enough to shave. Don’t expect floor to ceiling mirrors! Also consider the shape – some are circular, some are rectangular. Depending on where you put them they will work worse or better for various tasks, for various people.
  • Storage Space. Some of the best ones aren’t just mirrors – they’re also added storage. Pop in some shower gels and shaving foams! Bonus.
  • Lighting. A few premium models and a couple of cheaper ones have lights around them – which is obviously useful if you like your showers thick with steam.
  • Which Anti-fog technology. There are units that have warm water inside to counteract the effects of condensation – it’s a simple solution but does mean a tiny bit of work on your part. Other methods for defogging are making the mirror out of the right metal, or covering the surface with a special coating. On cheap models that coating can erode over time.

32 Things From My 32nd Year


So to wish 32 well and send it on its merry way here’s a snippet from my 32nd year. Probably the year with the most change in my whole life. Some good, some bad. I don’t keep a journal but thought this would be a great way to sum up my year each birthday and to look back and reflect.

Thanks 32 – you were pretty epic. Or, to coin my husband’s fave word at the mo, there’s a whole lot of ‘epicicity’ there.

  1. We celebrated our first wedding Anniversary
  2. I launched The Moss Letter Company
  3. My amazing Nanny passed away 🙁
  4. Stitch and bitch was born – crafting with my Aunties, lots o’ stitchin’, not much bitchin’
  5. I was made redundant
  6. I looked after my brothers dog Gizmo for 3 months – I love him like a child
  7. I shaved the side of my head
  8. We went on our first cruise around the Med
  9. I baked my first loaf of bread (I think)
  10. I launched a blog
  11. I joined Virgin gym
  12. My friend’s baby Reuben was born – whole lot of gorgeous
  13. My friend Beth got pregnant with her first baby
  14. My friend Amy moved to Australia 🙁
  15. I missed out on Glasto tickets again!
  16. We stayed in a caravan in Tenby and I drew a massive bee in the sand that could be seen from the cliffs
  17. We stayed in a floating log cabin in Essex
  18. I learnt to knit, crochet and use a sewing machine
  19. I ate what I wanted after starving myself for my wedding the year before and paid the price!
  20. I graduated from the blogcademy
  21. I climbed trees at GoApe
  22. I went to two weddings
  23. I watched Salad Days at the Bridgewater theatre with my oldest buddy (long-standing friend, he’s not 90)
  24. I had an Easter Egg hunt in my garden for all my family
  25. I got a cold that kept me in bed for 5 days
  26. We got a Nissan Qashqai – it has a see-through roof!
  27. I didn’t paint a single painting
  28. We paid off our wedding debt
  29. We ate at Hugh Fearnley-Wittingstall’s restaurant – heaven on a wooden plate
  30. I bid farewell to Dexter after 8 seasons – what a joyless end. I wanted the serial killer to have a happy ending 😉
  31. I reconnected with my childhood friend Daniel (the one who’s not 90)
  32. We went to Italy for the first time – pepperoni pizza to die for

Until tomorrow…

The Moss Letter Company

33 Is the Happiest Age to Be

or so I read this week, according to a study by Friends Reunited.

Last Monday when I turned 33 my initial thought was ‘what a dull number’. I like even numbers and that’s a whole lot of uneven. My date of birth is 28/10/80, my Wedding Anniversary is 04/08/12, my numbers on the roulette table are always 2, 8, 10, 22, 28… so 33 wasn’t that welcome!

But then I learnt that 33 is the happiest you will ever be and it gave me hope (ignoring the fact that this may mean it’s all down hill from here!). This is my peak apparently, in more ways than one. Allegedly, I have a strong sense of self and hope. My sex life is meant to be at it’s best as I now know what I want. Us 33 year olds are supposedly aware of our strengths and talents and can look at our younger self with a happy nostalgic wry smug titter of ‘wasn’t she cute and naive bless her’, rather than beating yourself up for past choices.

I think there is something in it. I do actually feel pretty happy. Am I happier because I am now doing the job I always wanted, doing the things I always wanted or is it because I am 33 and happy with myself, which is then setting my frame of mind to achieve these lovely things.  Who knows? Who cares?! Lets just embrace 33 and own the happiness we are statistically meant to be feeling.

My thoughts on why we might be feeling our happiest;

  1. Your instincts are strong and you see through more bullcrap and can separate the wheat from the chaff
  2. The friends in your life have hopefully, like mine, been pretty life long so you have an immense ‘strong foundation’ support system
  3. You have found the balance between glamour and comfort!
  4. You know what you are into and aren’t ashamed if it’s a bit lame or embarrassing
  5. You know that good self-esteem doesn’t come from others but from yourself
  6. You know about self-preservation – avoiding things that hurt or asking questions you don’t actually want to know the answer to
  7. Your family relationships become more like friendship
  8. You aren’t so afraid to say no
  9. You are also less afraid to ask for stuff!
  10. You are far more aware of and live more solidly by a ‘what’s the worst that can happen?’ approach
  11. Every Sunday isn’t wasted by a hangover but is more productive and/or fun
  12. You’re less self-conscious to say ‘I love you’, ‘You are amazing’, ‘You look fab’
  13. Your concept of ‘old’ jumps to at least 75. At least!
  14. You enjoy nature, a nice view, the scenic route, a nice wine just that little bit more
  15. You realise being grown up doesn’t mean acting ‘grown up’

Why do you think we are happier at 33?

Until tomorrow…

The Moss Letter Company